According to a report from Canalys, despite Apple's growing presence in China through the use of Apple Stores and huge iPad sales, it seems that the Chinese favor Google.
In 81% of smartphone shipments in China (China accounts for 27% of the global smartphone market, much bigger than the U.S's 27%), Android was the platform on the device.
This sucess isn't limited to China alone - globally, over 100 million Android smartphones were shipped, beating any previous sales record.
According to CNET.com, as with most markets, Samsung is in a clear lead in the Android market, accounting for 17% of the market. After that some uncommon brands appear - ZTE, Lenovo, and Huawei. All of these companies are based in China and ZTE and Huawei aren't as well-established in the U.S.
Apple saw a sharp drop of 37% with the first quarter, which can be attributed to the Q1 launch of the latest iPhone in China, so it's natural to see a drop-off after launch.
Many could attribute Android's success to the price - many low- and mid-range Android devices exist and so will appeal to the lower-middle class in China. With the iPhone, it's a very expensive device in comparison, so i'ts expected that it doesn't do as well in less economically-developed countries.